Diabetes

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

There are two groups of risk factors type II diabetes: modifiable, which can be affected and non-modifiable, which cannot be changed, but you can know about them, to take preventive steps, especially in the presence of other risk factors. For non-modifiable factors are: hereditary factors, age and ethnicity; to modifiable – all the rest.

Hereditary type II diabetes

In the presence of diabetes mellitus one of the parents or next of kin probability are diabetes, according to data from different sources, ranging from 30 to 80%. If both parents are ill, then the probability of occurrence of diabetes in their child is 60-100%.Age in diabetes mellitus type 2.The probability of diabetes increased from 40 years of age. In the age group from 40 to 60 years the prevalence of diabetes is less than 7%, in the group 60-65 years, diabetes occurs in 10% and over 65 years – the number of diabetics is 20%. Unfortunately, studies show, now is a growing type II diabetes in children and adolescents, and in some areas of the U.S. and Europe, this type of diabetes is higher than the incidence of type I diabetes.

Ethnic factor type II diabetes

Ethnic factor may contribute to a greater or lesser prevalence of diabetes. For example, among the inhabitants of the island of Nauru and the Pima Indians in North America suffer from diabetes, 86% of the population, while residents of Papua New Guinea do not suffer from this type of diabetes. The risk of developing diabetes is higher in the indigenous population of America, Canada, India, Australia, Africa, the Islanders Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Other non-modifiable factors type II diabetes

Factors of this group, which include features of pregnancy and childbirth, can be called conditionally non-modifiable. At risk include the following categories of women:

  • Women, who during pregnancy had an increase in body weight is greater than the normal proceeding of pregnancy;
  • Women, who during pregnancy were noted carbohydrate metabolism (a positive test for glucose tolerance, abnormal increase in blood glucose after meals, increased fasting glucose, the symptoms of diabetes). About 20% of these women for 5-10 years develop diabetes;
  • Mothers, whose children had birth weight 4000 g;
  • mothers, whose children had congenital malformation;
  • Women with a history of miscarriages or stillbirths.

Body weight a risk factor for type II diabetes

Increased body weight – is the most significant risk factor for type II diabetes. Determine whether excessive weight can formula Quetelet, according to which calculated the body mass index (BMI): weight (in kilograms) must be divided by height (in meters) squared. Determine how much an increased risk of developing diabetes, with increasing body weight can be on the table.

  • The relationship of obesity and risk of type II diabetes
  • Type of body weight
  • BMI (kg/m2)
  • Increased risk morbidity of diabetes mellitus

Underweight of the body

<   18,5

None

 

Normal weight

18,5—24,9

None

 

Overweight (pre-obese)

25—29,9

2 times

 

I degree obesity

30—34,9

5 times

 

II degree obesity

35—39,9

In 10 or more times

 

III degree obesity

>   40

More than 15 times

According to scientists, if the inhabitants of developed countries will be able to cope with the problem of overweight, then they have every chance of becoming centenarians and achieve by 2030 the average life expectancy in 100 years.

Low physical activity

People, leading a sedentary lifestyle, have the risk of morbidity from diabetes in 3 times higher than people with active lifestyles. In economically developed countries, physical activity level in 2 / 3 of the population below the minimum.

Stress

Strong and long-term negative stress provoke disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism that precede diabetes. Studies have shown that events such as illness or loss of a loved one, the unstable financial situation and financial problems increase the risk of developing diabetes. Such persons subsequently in 5% of cases developed diabetes, and 60% of the patients were identified carbohydrate metabolism, is a precursor of diabetes.

Concomitant pathology type II diabetes

Risk factors include hypertension (blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg. Cent.) And lipid metabolism, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis and ultimately lead to brain stroke and myocardial infarction. It is believed that such diseases as polycystic ovaries, also contributes to type II diabetes.

Polycystic ovaries – is a disease that does not involve release of an egg from the ovary. Studies have shown that this pathology develops insulin resistance. Of all these factors the most important and valuable are over-weight, low physical activity and unhealthy diet. It is they who are responsible for the occurrence of type II diabetes in 90% of all cases. Especially dangerous is the combination of these factors with a genetic predisposition to this type of diabetes. In addition, “particularly disturbing is that diabetes is much” younger “- as the president of the International Diabetes Federation, Pierre

Lefebvre. – This is a consequence of progressive obesity of children and adolescents in the past 10-20 years, caused by fatty food fast food and a sharp reduction in physical activity because of excessive enthusiasm for computer games and television.

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